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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Late (≥ 7 days) inhalation corticosteroids to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, August 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (93rd percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (76th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 blog
41 tweeters
1 Facebook page


66 Dimensions

Readers on

186 Mendeley
Late (≥ 7 days) inhalation corticosteroids to reduce bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, August 2017
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd002311.pub4
Pubmed ID

Wes Onland, Martin Offringa, Anton van Kaam


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), defined as oxygen dependence at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA), remains an important complication of prematurity. Pulmonary inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of BPD. Attenuating pulmonary inflammation with postnatal systemic corticosteroids reduces the incidence of BPD in preterm infants but may be associated with an increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Local administration of corticosteroids via inhalation might be an effective and safe alternative. To determine if administration of inhalation corticosteroids after the first week of life until 36 weeks PMA to preterm infants at high risk of developing BPD is effective and safe in reducing the incidence of death and BPD as separate or combined outcomes. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2017, Issue 4), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 19 May 2017), Embase (1980 to 19 May 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 19 May 2017). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. We included randomised controlled trials comparing inhalation corticosteroids, started ≥ 7 days postnatal age (PNA) but before 36 weeks PMA, to placebo in ventilated and non-ventilated infants at risk of BPD. We excluded trials investigating systemic corticosteroids versus inhalation corticosteroids. We collected data on participant characteristics, trial methodology, and inhalation regimens. The primary outcome was death or BPD at 36 weeks PMA. Secondary outcomes were the combined outcome death or BPD at 28 days PNA, the seperate outcomes of death and BPD at both 28 days PNA, and at 36 weeks PMA, and short-term respiratory outcomes, such as failure to extubate; total days of mechanical ventilation and oxygen use; and the need for systemic corticosteroids. We contacted the original trialists to verify the validity of extracted data and to provide missing data. We analysed all data using Review Manager 5. When possible, we performed meta-analysis using typical risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous outcomes along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed ventilated and non-ventilated participants separately.We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. We included eight trials randomising 232 preterm infants in this review. Inhalation corticosteroids did not reduce the separate or combined outcomes of death or BPD. The meta-analyses of the studies showed a reduced risk in favor of inhalation steroids regarding failure to extubate at seven days (typical RR (TRR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.98; 5 studies, 79 infants) and at the latest reported time point after treatment onset (TRR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80; 6 studies, 90 infants). However, both analyses showed increased statistical heterogeneity (I(2) statistic 73% and 86%, respectively). Furthermore, inhalation steroids did not impact total duration of mechanical ventilation or oxygen dependency. There was a trend toward a reduction in the use of systemic corticosteroids in infants receiving inhalation corticosteroids (TRR 0.51, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.00; 4 studies, 74 infants; very low-quality evidence). There was a paucity of data on short- and long-term adverse effects. Our results should be interpreted with caution because the total number of randomised participants is relatively small, and most trials differed considerably in participant characteristics, inhalation therapy, and outcome definitions. Based on the results of the currently available evidence, inhalation corticosteroids initiated at ≥ 7 days of life for preterm infants at high risk of developing BPD cannot be recommended at this point in time. More and larger randomised, placebo-controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of inhalation corticosteroids.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 41 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 186 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 186 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 28 15%
Student > Bachelor 22 12%
Researcher 18 10%
Student > Postgraduate 15 8%
Other 14 8%
Other 35 19%
Unknown 54 29%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 84 45%
Nursing and Health Professions 16 9%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 3%
Social Sciences 5 3%
Psychology 4 2%
Other 12 6%
Unknown 60 32%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 37. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 January 2018.
All research outputs
of 23,566,295 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 12,743 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 318,291 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 273 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 23,566,295 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 12,743 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 33.1. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 318,291 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 273 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 76% of its contemporaries.