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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Tricyclic and related drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, January 2016
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (96th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (83rd percentile)

Mentioned by

news
2 news outlets
blogs
1 blog
twitter
18 tweeters
facebook
3 Facebook pages
wikipedia
4 Wikipedia pages
reddit
1 Redditor
q&a
1 Q&A thread

Citations

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36 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
223 Mendeley
Title
Tricyclic and related drugs for nocturnal enuresis in children
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, January 2016
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd002117.pub2
Pubmed ID
Authors

Patrina HY Caldwell, Premala Sureshkumar, Wicky CF Wong

Abstract

Enuresis (bedwetting) affects up to 20% of five year-olds and 2% of adults. Although spontaneous remission often occurs, the social, emotional and psychological costs can be great. Tricyclics have been used to treat enuresis since the 1960s. To assess the effects of tricyclic and related drugs compared with other interventions for treating children with enuresis. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Trials Register (containing trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings), on 30 November 2015, and reference lists of relevant articles. We included all randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing a tricyclic or related drug with another intervention for treating enuresis. We also included combination therapies that included tricyclics. We excluded trials for treating daytime wetting. Two review authors independently assessed the quality of the eligible trials, and extracted data. We settled differences by discussion with a third review author. Sixty-four trials met the inclusion criteria, involving 4071 children. The quality of many trials was poor, with comparisons addressed by single studies. Minor adverse effects were common, and reported in 30 trials. These included dizziness, headache, mood changes, gastrointestinal discomforts and neutropenia. More serious side-effects can occur but were not reported. Seven trials reported no adverse effects.Tricyclics are more effective than placebo, particularly for short-term outcomes. Compared to placebo, imipramine resulted in one fewer wet nights per week (mean difference (MD) -0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.40 to -0.50; 4 trials, 347 children), with fewer failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights (78% versus 95% for placebo, RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.90; 12 trials, 831 children). Amitriptyline and desipramine were more effective than placebo, but nortriptyline and mianserin showed no difference. Most tricyclics did not have a sustained effect after ceasing treatment, with 96% wetting at follow-up for imipramine versus 97% for placebo.Imipramine combined with oxybutynin is also more effective than placebo, with 33% failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights at the end of treatment versus 78% for placebo (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.78; 1 trial, 47 children) and 45% wetting at follow-up versus 79% for placebo (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.99; 1 trial, 36 children).There was insufficient evidence to judge the effect between different doses of tricyclics, and between different tricyclics. Treatment outcomes between tricyclic and desmopressin were similar, but were mixed when tricyclic was compared with an anticholinergic. However, when imipramine was compared with desmopressin plus oxybutynin (1 trial, 45 children), the combination therapy was more effective, with one fewer wet nights per week (MD 1.07, 95% CI 0.06 to 2.08) and 36% failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights versus 87% for imipramine (RR 2.39, 95% CI 1.35 to 4.25). Tricyclics were also more effective or showed no difference in response when compared to other drugs which are no longer used for enuresis.Tricyclics were less effective than alarms. Although there was no difference in the number of wet nights, 67% failed to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights for imipramine versus only 17% for alarms (RR 4.00, 95% CI 1.06 to 15.08; 1 trial, 24 children). Alarm therapy also had a more sustained effect after ceasing treatment with 100% on imipramine versus 58% on alarms wetting at follow-up (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.69; 1 trial, 24 children).Imipramine was more effective than simple behavioural therapies during treatment, with one fewer wet nights per week compared with star chart plus placebo (MD -0.80, 95% CI -1.33 to -0.27; 1 trial, 250 children). At follow-up 40% were wet with imipramine versus 80% with fluids and avoiding punishment (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.89; 1 trial, 40 children). However, imipramine was less effective than complex behavioural therapies, with 61% failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights for imipramine versus 33% for the three-step programme (RR 1.83, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.12; 1 trial, 72 children) and 16% for the three-step programme combined with motivational therapy and computer-led education (RR 3.91, 95% CI 2.30 to 6.66; 1 trial, 132 children) at the end of treatment, with similar results at follow-up.Tricyclics were more effective than restricted diet, with 99% failing to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights versus 84% for imipramine (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.93; 1 trial, 147 children).There was insufficient evidence to judge the effect of tricyclics compared to the other miscellaneous interventions studied.At the end of treatment there were about two fewer wet nights for imipramine plus oxybutynin compared with imipramine monotherapy (MD -2.10, 95% CI -2.99 to -1.21; 1 trial, 63 children) and 48% on imipramine plus oxybutynin failed to achieve 14 consecutive dry nights compared with 74% on imipramine monotherapy (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.92; 2 trials, 101 children). At follow-up, 45% on imipramine plus oxybutynin were wetting versus 83% on imipramine monotherapy (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.92; 1 trial, 36 children).When imipramine combined with desmopressin was compared with imipramine monotherapy, there was no difference in outcomes. However, when imipramine plus desmopressin was compared with desmopressin monotherapy, the combination was more effective, with 15% not achieving 14 consecutive dry nights at the end of treatment for imipramine plus desmopressin versus 40% for desmopressin monotherapy (RR 0.38, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.83; 1 trial, 86 children). Tricyclics combined with alarm therapy were not more effective than alarm monotherapy, alarm combined with desmopressin or alarm combined with nortriptyline. The addition of a tricyclic to other behavioural therapies did not alter treatment response. There was evidence that tricyclics are effective at reducing the number of wet nights during treatment, but do not have a sustained effect after treatment stops, with most children relapsing. In contrast, there was evidence that alarm therapy has better short- and long-term outcomes. There was some evidence that tricyclics combined with anticholinergics may be more effective that tricyclic monotherapy.

Twitter Demographics

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Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 223 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Portugal 1 <1%
South Africa 1 <1%
Unknown 219 98%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 50 22%
Student > Ph. D. Student 25 11%
Student > Bachelor 24 11%
Researcher 20 9%
Student > Doctoral Student 14 6%
Other 43 19%
Unknown 47 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 63 28%
Nursing and Health Professions 28 13%
Psychology 26 12%
Social Sciences 11 5%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 7 3%
Other 27 12%
Unknown 61 27%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 46. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 24 December 2021.
All research outputs
#654,077
of 20,117,040 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#1,477
of 12,013 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#14,332
of 364,927 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#34
of 199 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 20,117,040 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 96th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 12,013 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 27.9. This one has done well, scoring higher than 87% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 364,927 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 199 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 83% of its contemporaries.