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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Antifibrinolytic agents for reducing blood loss in scoliosis surgery in children

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, September 2016
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (81st percentile)
  • Average Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source

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16 X users
2 Facebook pages


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263 Mendeley
Antifibrinolytic agents for reducing blood loss in scoliosis surgery in children
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, September 2016
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd006883.pub3
Pubmed ID

Ewan D McNicol, Aikaterini Tzortzopoulou, Roman Schumann, Daniel B Carr, Aman Kalra


This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review first published in 2008. Scoliosis surgery is often associated with substantial blood loss and potentially detrimental effects in children. Antifibrinolytic agents are often used to reduce perioperative blood loss. Clinical trials have evaluated their efficacy in children undergoing surgical correction of scoliosis, but no systematic review has been published. This review was first published in 2008 and was updated in 2016. To assess the efficacy and safety of aprotinin, tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid in reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in children undergoing surgery for correction of idiopathic or secondary scoliosis. We ran the search for the previous review in June 2007. For this updated version, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to August week 1 2015), Embase (1947 to 2015 week 38), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1982 to 14 August 2015), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE; 2015, Issue 2) and reference lists of reviews and retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials in any language. We also checked the clinical trial registry at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov on 8 October 2015. We included blinded and unblinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of antifibrinolytics on perioperative blood loss in children 18 years of age or younger and undergoing scoliosis surgery. Two review authors independently extracted data. The primary outcome was total blood loss (intraoperative and postoperative combined). Secondary efficacy outcomes were the number of participants receiving blood transfusion (both autologous and allogeneic) or receiving allogeneic blood transfusion alone, and the total amount of blood transfused. Safety outcomes included the number of deaths, the number of participants reporting any adverse event or a serious adverse event, withdrawals due to adverse events and the number of participants experiencing a specific adverse event (i.e. renal insufficiency, hypersensitivity or thrombosis). We assessed methodological risk of bias for each included study and employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of the evidence. We included three new studies (201 participants) in this updated review, for a total of nine studies (455 participants). All but one study employed placebo as the control group intervention. For the primary outcome, antifibrinolytic drugs decreased the amount of perioperative blood loss by 427 mL (95% confidence interval (CI) 251 to 603 mL), for a reduction of over 20% versus placebo. We rated the quality of evidence for our primary outcome as low on the basis of unclear risk of bias for several domains in most studies and the small total number of participants.For secondary outcomes, fewer participants receiving antifibrinolytic drugs received transfusion (allogeneic or autologous) versus those receiving placebo (risk ratio (RR) 0.65, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.85, number needed to treat to prevent one additional harmful outcome (NNTp) 5; very low-quality evidence). Only two studies specifically evaluated the number of participants transfused with only allogeneic blood (risk difference (RD) -0.15, 95% CI -0.26 to -0.03, NNTp 7; very low-quality evidence). Antifibrinolytic drugs decreased the volume of blood transfused by 327 mL (95% CI -186 to -469 mL; low-quality evidence).No study reported deaths in active or control groups. Data were insufficient to allow performance of meta-analysis for any safety outcome. No studies adequately described their methods in assessing safety. The only adverse event of note occurred in one study, when three participants in the placebo group developed postoperative deep vein thrombosis. Since the last published version of this review (2008), we have found three new studies. Additional evidence shows that antifibrinolytics reduce the requirement for both autologous and allogeneic blood transfusion. Limited evidence of low to very low quality supports the use of antifibrinolytic drugs for reducing blood loss and decreasing the risk, and volume, of transfusion in children undergoing scoliosis surgery. Evidence is insufficient to support the use of a particular agent, although tranexamic acid may be preferred, given its widespread availability. The optimal dose regimen for any of these three agents has not been established. Although adverse events appear to occur infrequently, evidence is insufficient to confirm the safety of these agents, particularly for rare but potentially catastrophic events. No long-term safety data are available.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 16 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 263 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Colombia 1 <1%
Unknown 261 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 33 13%
Student > Bachelor 27 10%
Student > Doctoral Student 24 9%
Researcher 22 8%
Student > Ph. D. Student 22 8%
Other 54 21%
Unknown 81 31%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 90 34%
Nursing and Health Professions 25 10%
Social Sciences 9 3%
Psychology 9 3%
Unspecified 5 2%
Other 31 12%
Unknown 94 36%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 10. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 02 April 2017.
All research outputs
of 25,457,297 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 11,499 outputs
Outputs of similar age
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Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 229 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,457,297 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 85th percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 11,499 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 40.0. This one is in the 46th percentile – i.e., 46% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 328,500 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 81% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 229 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 41st percentile – i.e., 41% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.