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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, October 2017
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (98th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (95th percentile)

Citations

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366 Dimensions

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636 Mendeley
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Title
Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, October 2017
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd007498.pub3
Pubmed ID
Authors

Philipp Schuetz, Yannick Wirz, Ramon Sager, Mirjam Christ‐Crain, Daiana Stolz, Michael Tamm, Lila Bouadma, Charles E Luyt, Michel Wolff, Jean Chastre, Florence Tubach, Kristina B Kristoffersen, Olaf Burkhardt, Tobias Welte, Stefan Schroeder, Vandack Nobre, Long Wei, Heiner C C Bucher, Neera Bhatnagar, Djillali Annane, Konrad Reinhart, Angela Branche, Pierre Damas, Maarten Nijsten, Dylan W de Lange, Rodrigo O Deliberato, Stella SS Lima, Vera Maravić‐Stojković, Alessia Verduri, Bin Cao, Yahya Shehabi, Albertus Beishuizen, Jens‐Ulrik S Jensen, Caspar Corti, Jos A Van Oers, Ann R Falsey, Evelien de Jong, Carolina F Oliveira, Bianca Beghe, Matthias Briel, Beat Mueller

Abstract

Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about antibiotic therapy (PCT-guided antibiotic therapy). Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated the feasibility of using procalcitonin for starting and stopping antibiotics in different patient populations with ARIs and different settings ranging from primary care settings to emergency departments, hospital wards, and intensive care units. However, the effect of using procalcitonin on clinical outcomes is unclear. This is an update of a Cochrane review and individual participant data meta-analysis first published in 2012 designed to look at the safety of PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this systematic review based on individual participant data was to assess the safety and efficacy of using procalcitonin for starting or stopping antibiotics over a large range of patients with varying severity of ARIs and from different clinical settings. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, and Embase, in February 2017, to identify suitable trials. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov to identify ongoing trials in April 2017. We included RCTs of adult participants with ARIs who received an antibiotic treatment either based on a procalcitonin algorithm (PCT-guided antibiotic stewardship algorithm) or usual care. We excluded trials if they focused exclusively on children or used procalcitonin for a purpose other than to guide initiation and duration of antibiotic treatment. Two teams of review authors independently evaluated the methodology and extracted data from primary studies. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and treatment failure at 30 days, for which definitions were harmonised among trials. Secondary endpoints were antibiotic use, antibiotic-related side effects, and length of hospital stay. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable hierarchical logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, and clinical diagnosis using a fixed-effect model. The different trials were added as random-effects into the model. We conducted sensitivity analyses stratified by clinical setting and type of ARI. We also performed an aggregate data meta-analysis. From 32 eligible RCTs including 18 new trials for this 2017 update, we obtained individual participant data from 26 trials including 6708 participants, which we included in the main individual participant data meta-analysis. We did not obtain individual participant data for four trials, and two trials did not include people with confirmed ARIs. According to GRADE, the quality of the evidence was high for the outcomes mortality and antibiotic exposure, and quality was moderate for the outcomes treatment failure and antibiotic-related side effects.Primary endpoints: there were 286 deaths in 3336 procalcitonin-guided participants (8.6%) compared to 336 in 3372 controls (10.0%), resulting in a significantly lower mortality associated with procalcitonin-guided therapy (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99, P = 0.037). We could not estimate mortality in primary care trials because only one death was reported in a control group participant. Treatment failure was not significantly lower in procalcitonin-guided participants (23.0% versus 24.9% in the control group, adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.01, P = 0.068). Results were similar among subgroups by clinical setting and type of respiratory infection, with no evidence for effect modification (P for interaction > 0.05). Secondary endpoints: procalcitonin guidance was associated with a 2.4-day reduction in antibiotic exposure (5.7 versus 8.1 days, 95% CI -2.71 to -2.15, P < 0.001) and lower risk of antibiotic-related side effects (16.3% versus 22.1%, adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.82, P < 0.001). Length of hospital stay and intensive care unit stay were similar in both groups. A sensitivity aggregate-data analysis based on all 32 eligible trials showed similar results. This updated meta-analysis of individual participant data from 12 countries shows that the use of procalcitonin to guide initiation and duration of antibiotic treatment results in lower risks of mortality, lower antibiotic consumption, and lower risk for antibiotic-related side effects. Results were similar for different clinical settings and types of ARIs, thus supporting the use of procalcitonin in the context of antibiotic stewardship in people with ARIs. Future high-quality research is needed to confirm the results in immunosuppressed patients and patients with non-respiratory infections.

X Demographics

X Demographics

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 636 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Poland 1 <1%
Unknown 635 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 70 11%
Student > Bachelor 66 10%
Other 62 10%
Student > Master 56 9%
Student > Ph. D. Student 39 6%
Other 129 20%
Unknown 214 34%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 228 36%
Nursing and Health Professions 37 6%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 28 4%
Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology 13 2%
Agricultural and Biological Sciences 11 2%
Other 67 11%
Unknown 252 40%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 148. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 30 August 2023.
All research outputs
#288,777
of 26,018,952 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#465
of 13,180 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#5,898
of 337,446 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#11
of 264 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 26,018,952 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 98th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 13,180 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 35.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 96% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 337,446 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 98% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 264 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.