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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm infants

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, October 2017
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About this Attention Score

  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (90th percentile)
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (68th percentile)

Mentioned by

1 blog
14 tweeters
2 Facebook pages


17 Dimensions

Readers on

207 Mendeley
Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm infants
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, October 2017
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd002057.pub4
Pubmed ID

Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah


This is an update of a review published in 2012. A related review "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates" has been updated as well. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants, despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or prevent BPD. However, the use of systemic steroids has been associated with serious short- and long-term adverse effects. Administration of corticosteroids topically through the respiratory tract may result in beneficial effects on the pulmonary system with fewer undesirable systemic side effects. To compare the effectiveness of inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids administered to ventilator-dependent preterm neonates with birth weight ≤ 1500 g or gestational age ≤ 32 weeks after 7 days of life on the incidence of death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age. We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2017, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 23 February 2017), Embase (1980 to 23 February 2017), and CINAHL (1982 to 23 February 2017). We also searched clinical trials registers, conference proceedings and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing inhaled versus systemic corticosteroid therapy (irrespective of dose and duration) starting after the first week of life in ventilator-dependent very low birth weight infants. We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. We included three trials that involved a total of 431 participants which compared inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids to treat BPD. No new trials were included for the 2017 update.Although one study randomised infants at < 72 hours (N = 292), treatment started when infants were aged > 15 days. In this larger study, deaths were included from the point of randomisation and before treatment started. Two studies (N = 139) randomised and started treatment at 12 to 21 days.Two trials reported non-significant differences between groups for the primary outcome: incidence of death or BPD at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age among all randomised infants. Estimates for the largest trial were Relative risk (RR) 1.04 (95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 1.26), Risk difference (RD) 0.03 (95% CI -0.09 to 0.15); (moderate-quality evidence). Estimates for the other trial reporting the primary outcome were RR 0.94 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.05), RD -0.06 (95% CI -0.17 to 0.05); (low-quality evidence).Secondary outcomes that included data from all three trials showed no significant differences in the duration of mechanical ventilation or supplemental oxygen, length of hospital stay, or the incidence of hyperglycaemia, hypertension, necrotising enterocolitis, gastrointestinal bleed, retinopathy of prematurity or culture-proven sepsis moderate- to low-quality evidence).In a subset of 75 surviving infants who were enrolled from the United Kingdom and Ireland, there were no significant differences in developmental outcomes at seven years of age between groups (moderate-quality evidence). One study received grant support and the industry provided aerochambers and metered dose inhalers of budesonide and placebo for the same study. No conflict of interest was identified. We found no evidence that inhaled corticosteroids confer net advantages over systemic corticosteroids in the management of ventilator-dependent preterm infants. There was no evidence of difference in effectiveness or adverse event profiles for inhaled versus systemic steroids.A better delivery system guaranteeing selective delivery of inhaled steroids to the alveoli might result in beneficial clinical effects without increasing adverse events.To resolve this issue, studies are needed to identify the risk/benefit ratio of different delivery techniques and dosing schedules for administration of these medications. The long-term effects of inhaled steroids, with particular attention to neurodevelopmental outcomes, should be addressed in future studies.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 14 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 207 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 207 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 39 19%
Student > Bachelor 27 13%
Researcher 26 13%
Student > Ph. D. Student 16 8%
Other 14 7%
Other 42 20%
Unknown 43 21%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 88 43%
Nursing and Health Professions 27 13%
Social Sciences 7 3%
Psychology 6 3%
Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science 5 2%
Other 23 11%
Unknown 51 25%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 20. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 25 January 2018.
All research outputs
of 13,190,464 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 10,519 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 312,346 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 256 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 13,190,464 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 94th percentile: it's in the top 10% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 10,519 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 20.6. This one has done well, scoring higher than 76% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 312,346 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 256 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has gotten more attention than average, scoring higher than 68% of its contemporaries.