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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Cholinergic medication for antipsychotic‐induced tardive dyskinesia

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, March 2018
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  • In the top 25% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • Good Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (78th percentile)

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Cholinergic medication for antipsychotic‐induced tardive dyskinesia
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, March 2018
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd000207.pub2
Pubmed ID

Irina Tammenmaa‐Aho, Rosie Asher, Karla Soares‐Weiser, Hanna Bergman


Tardive dyskinesia (TD) remains a troublesome adverse effect of conventional antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication. It has been proposed that TD could have a component of central cholinergic deficiency. Cholinergic drugs have been used to treat TD. To determine the effects of cholinergic drugs (arecoline, choline, deanol, lecithin, meclofenoxate, physostigmine, RS 86, tacrine, metoxytacrine, galantamine, ipidacrine, donepezil, rivastigmine, eptastigmine, metrifonate, xanomeline, cevimeline) for treating antipsychotic-induced TD in people with schizophrenia or other chronic mental illness. An electronic search of the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (16 July 2015 and April 2017) was undertaken. This register is assembled by extensive searches for randomised controlled trials in many electronic databases, registers of trials, conference proceedings and dissertations. References of all identified studies were searched for further trial citations. We included reports identified by the search if they were of controlled trials involving people with antipsychotic-induced TD and chronic mental illness, who had been randomly allocated to either a cholinergic agent or to a placebo or no intervention. Two review authors independently assessed the methodological quality of the trials. Two review authors extracted data and, where possible, estimated risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis, with the assumption that people who left early had no improvement. We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using GRADE. We included 14 studies investigating the use of cholinergic drugs compared with placebo published between 1976 and 2014. All studies involved small numbers of participants (five to 60 people). Three studies that investigated the new cholinergic Alzheimer drugs for the treatment of TD are new to this update. Overall, the risk of bias in the included studies was unclear, mainly due to poor reporting; allocation concealment was not described, generation of the sequence was not explicit, studies were not clearly blinded, we are unsure if data are incomplete, and data were often poorly or selectively reported.We are uncertain about the effect of new or old cholinergic drugs on no clinically important improvement in TD symptoms when compared with placebo; the quality of evidence was very low (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.23; 27 people, 4 RCTs). Eight trials found that cholinergic drugs may make little or no difference to deterioration of TD symptoms (low-quality evidence, RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.55 to 2.24; 147 people). Again, due to very low-quality evidence, we are uncertain about the effects on mental state (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.10 to 2.61; 77 people, 5 RCTs), adverse events (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.14; 106 people, 4 RCTs), and leaving the study early (RR 1.09,95% CI 0.56 to 2.10; 288 people 12 RCTs). No study reported on social confidence, social inclusion, social networks, or personalised quality of life. TD remains a major public health problem. The clinical effects of both older cholinergic drugs and new cholinergic agents, now used for treating Alzheimer's disease, are unclear, as too few, too small studies leave many questions unanswered. Cholinergic drugs should remain of interest to researchers and currently have little place in routine clinical work. However, with the advent of new cholinergic agents now used for treating Alzheimer's disease, scope exists for more informative trials. If these new cholinergic agents are to be investigated for treating people with TD, their effects should be demonstrated in large well-designed, conducted and reported randomised trials.

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Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 192 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 192 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 27 14%
Student > Bachelor 16 8%
Student > Ph. D. Student 14 7%
Other 12 6%
Researcher 10 5%
Other 39 20%
Unknown 74 39%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 40 21%
Nursing and Health Professions 18 9%
Psychology 16 8%
Unspecified 9 5%
Social Sciences 6 3%
Other 22 11%
Unknown 81 42%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 9. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 12 April 2022.
All research outputs
of 25,382,440 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 11,484 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 348,698 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 158 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,382,440 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done well and is in the 83rd percentile: it's in the top 25% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 11,484 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 39.9. This one is in the 44th percentile – i.e., 44% of its peers scored the same or lower than it.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 348,698 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done well, scoring higher than 78% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 158 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one is in the 26th percentile – i.e., 26% of its contemporaries scored the same or lower than it.