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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, July 2015
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (95th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (81st percentile)

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3 news outlets
1 blog
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4 X users
1 Facebook page
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339 Mendeley
Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, July 2015
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd005549.pub3
Pubmed ID

Wasim Maziak, Mohammed Jawad, Sena Jawad, Kenneth D Ward, Thomas Eissenberg, Taghrid Asfar


Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), but its use is now spreading worldwide. Recent epidemiological data, for example, show that waterpipe smoking has become the most prevalent tobacco use method among adolescents in the EMR, and the second most prevalent in the US. Waterpipes are used socially, often being shared between friends or family at home, or in dedicated bars and cafes that provide waterpipes to patrons. Because the smoke passes through a reservoir of water, waterpipe tobacco smoking is perceived as being less harmful than other methods of tobacco use. At least in some cultures, women and girls are more likely to use a waterpipe than to use other forms of tobacco, and it is popular among younger smokers. Accumulating evidence suggests that some waterpipe smokers become addicted, have difficulty quitting, and experience similar health risks as cigarette smokers. To evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation interventions for waterpipe users. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group specialized register in June 2015. We also searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL , using variant terms and spellings ('waterpipe' or 'narghile' or 'arghile' or 'shisha' or 'goza' or 'narkeela' or 'hookah' or 'hubble bubble'). We searched for trials, published or unpublished, in any language, and especially in regions where waterpipe use is widespread. We sought randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials of smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers of any age or gender. The primary outcome of interest was abstinence from tobacco use, measured at six months post-cessation or longer, regardless of whether abstinence was biochemically verified. We included interventions that were pharmacological (for example, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion) or behavioural, or both, and could be directed at individual waterpipe users or at groups of users. We only included tobacco cessation interventions, and did not consider trials of prevention of uptake. Two review authors assessed abstracts of the studies retrieved by the search strategy, for possible inclusion in the review. We retrieved full-text articles for all abstracts that any of the authors believed might be suitable. Two review authors then extracted data and assessed trial quality independently in accordance with standard Cochrane Collaboration methodologies. We aimed to pool groups of studies that we considered to be sufficiently similar, provided there was no evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity, and aimed to estimate a pooled risk ratio (RR) using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented summary and descriptive statistics. Our search retrieved 1311 unique citations, of which 1289 were excluded after title and abstract screening. Of the remaining 22, we excluded 19 because they were empirical studies that were not randomized, quasi-randomized or cluster-randomized controlled trials (n = 12), because they were review articles (n = 3), because they described protocols only (n = 2), they were conducted among cigarette smokers only (n = 1), or they had only a three-month follow-up (n = 1).We identified three controlled trials which tested cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers. Studies were carried out in Egypt (Mohlman 2013), Pakistan (Dogar 2014), and the US (Lipkus 2011). One was a randomized controlled trial and two were cluster-randomized trials. Two studies tested individual-level interventions, and one tested a community-level intervention. Two studies included only behavioural interventions, and one study (Dogar 2014) included two intervention groups: one behavioural, and the other behavioural with bupropion. The Lipkus and Mohlman studies delivered waterpipe-specific interventions, and the Dogar study delivered a non-specific tobacco intervention. Due to study variation we did not pool results, and intervention effects are reported descriptively. Compared to control groups, waterpipe smoking cessation rates were higher in the intervention groups in all three studies, with a significant difference in two studies. For the Dogar study, the RRs for waterpipe smoking abstinence at 25 weeks among waterpipe-only smokers were 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 3.8; 180 participants) in the behavioural group, and 2.5 (95% CI 1.3 to 4.7; 84 participants) in the behavioural plus bupropion group. In our analysis we have combined both groups, to give a RR of 2.28 (95% CI 1.36 to 3.83; 200 participants). The Mohlman study delivered a RR in male waterpipe-smokers at one year in favour of the intervention of 3.25 (95% CI 1.19 to 8.89). Although the literature on waterpipe cessation interventions remains sparse, the reviewed studies provide a basis for developing interventions in this area. The lack of statistically significant effects in one of the three studies is not unexpected, given the small and pilot nature of the studies. The studies highlight important design and content issues that need to be considered for future cessation trials in waterpipe smokers. These include building on the vast experience developed in the study of smoking cessation interventions in cigarette smokers, whilst including components and assessment tools that address the specific aspects of waterpipe smoking, such as its social dimension, unique experiences, and cues.

X Demographics

X Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 4 X users who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.
Mendeley readers

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 339 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Unknown 339 100%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Researcher 56 17%
Student > Master 53 16%
Student > Ph. D. Student 29 9%
Student > Bachelor 21 6%
Other 20 6%
Other 52 15%
Unknown 108 32%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 60 18%
Psychology 37 11%
Social Sciences 30 9%
Nursing and Health Professions 29 9%
Economics, Econometrics and Finance 10 3%
Other 43 13%
Unknown 130 38%
Attention Score in Context

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 40. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 17 August 2023.
All research outputs
of 25,394,764 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 11,487 outputs
Outputs of similar age
of 275,247 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
of 253 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 25,394,764 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 95th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 11,487 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 39.9. This one has done well, scoring higher than 81% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 275,247 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 95% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 253 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done well, scoring higher than 81% of its contemporaries.