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Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults

Overview of attention for article published in Cochrane database of systematic reviews, November 2015
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  • In the top 5% of all research outputs scored by Altmetric
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age (97th percentile)
  • High Attention Score compared to outputs of the same age and source (90th percentile)

Mentioned by

news
1 news outlet
policy
1 policy source
twitter
96 tweeters
facebook
8 Facebook pages
wikipedia
2 Wikipedia pages
googleplus
1 Google+ user

Citations

dimensions_citation
144 Dimensions

Readers on

mendeley
565 Mendeley
Title
Interventions for treating proximal humeral fractures in adults
Published in
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, November 2015
DOI 10.1002/14651858.cd000434.pub4
Pubmed ID
Authors

Helen HG Handoll, Stig Brorson

Abstract

Fracture of the proximal humerus, often termed shoulder fracture, is a common injury in older people. The management of these fractures varies widely. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of treatment and rehabilitation interventions for proximal humeral fractures in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases, conference proceedings and bibliographies of trial reports. The full search ended in November 2014. We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials pertinent to the management of proximal humeral fractures in adults. Both review authors performed independent study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. Only limited meta-analysis was performed. We included 31 heterogeneous RCTs (1941 participants). Most of the 18 separate treatment comparisons were tested by small single-centre trials. The main exception was the surgical versus non-surgical treatment comparison tested by eight trials. Except for a large multicentre trial, bias in these trials could not be ruled out. The quality of the evidence was either low or very low for all comparisons except the largest comparison.Nine trials evaluated non-surgical treatment in mainly minimally displaced fractures. Four trials compared early (usually one week) versus delayed (three or four weeks) mobilisation after fracture but only limited pooling was possible and most of the data were from one trial (86 participants). This found some evidence that early mobilisation resulted in better recovery and less pain in people with mainly minimally displaced fractures. There was evidence of little difference between the two groups in shoulder complications (2/127 early mobilisation versus 3/132 delayed mobilisation; 4 trials) and fracture displacement and non-union (2/52 versus 1/54; 2 trials).One quasi-randomised trial (28 participants) found the Gilchrist-type sling was generally more comfortable than the Desault-type sling (body bandage). One trial (48 participants) testing pulsed electromagnetic high-frequency energy provided no evidence. Two trials (62 participants) provided evidence indicating little difference in outcome between instruction for home exercises versus supervised physiotherapy. One trial (48 participants) reported, without presentable data, that home exercise alone gave better early and comparable long-term results than supervised exercise in a swimming pool plus home exercise.Eight trials, involving 567 older participants, evaluated surgical intervention for displaced fractures. There was high quality evidence of no clinically important difference in patient-reported shoulder and upper-limb function at one- or two-year follow-up between surgical (primarily locking plate fixation or hemiarthroplasty) and non-surgical treatment (sling immobilisation) for the majority of displaced proximal humeral fractures; and moderate quality evidence of no clinically important difference between the two groups in quality of life at two years (and at interim follow-ups at six and 12 months). There was moderate quality evidence of little difference between groups in mortality in the surgery group (17/248 versus 12/248; risk ratio (RR) 1.40 favouring non-surgical treatment, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69 to 2.83; P = 0.35; 6 trials); only one death was explicitly linked with the treatment. There was moderate quality evidence of a higher risk of additional surgery in the surgery group (34/262 versus 16/261; RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.18 to 3.60; P = 0.01; 7 trials). Although there was moderate evidence of a higher risk of adverse events after surgery, the 95% confidence intervals for adverse events also included the potential for a greater risk of adverse events after non-surgical treatment.Different methods of surgical management were tested in 12 trials. One trial (57 participants) comparing two types of locking plate versus a locking nail for treating two-part surgical neck fractures found some evidence of slightly better function after plate fixation but also of a higher rate of surgically-related complications. One trial (61 participants) comparing a locking plate versus minimally invasive fixation with distally inserted intramedullary K-wires found little difference between the two implants at two years. Compared with hemiarthroplasty, one trial (32 participants) found similar results with locking plate fixation in function and re-operation rates, whereas another trial (30 participants) reported all five re-operations occurred in the tension-band fixation group. One trial (62 participants) found better patient-rated (Quick DASH) and composite shoulder function scores at a minimum of two years follow-up and a lower incidence of re-operation and complications after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) compared with hemiarthroplasty.No important between-group differences were found in one trial (120 participants) comparing the deltoid-split approach versus deltopectoral approach for non-contact bridging plate fixation, and two trials (180 participants) comparing 'polyaxial' and 'monaxial' screws in locking plate fixation. One trial (68 participants) produced some preliminary evidence that tended to support the use of medial support locking screws in locking plate fixation. One trial (54 participants) found fewer adverse events, including re-operations, for the newer of two types of intramedullary nail. One trial (35 participants) found better functional results for one of two types of hemiarthroplasty. One trial (45 participants) found no important effects of tenodesis of the long head of the biceps for people undergoing hemiarthroplasty.Very limited evidence suggested similar outcomes from early versus later mobilisation after either surgical fixation (one trial: 64 participants) or hemiarthroplasty (one trial: 49 participants). There is high or moderate quality evidence that, compared with non-surgical treatment, surgery does not result in a better outcome at one and two years after injury for people with displaced proximal humeral fractures involving the humeral neck and is likely to result in a greater need for subsequent surgery. The evidence does not cover the treatment of two-part tuberosity fractures, fractures in young people, high energy trauma, nor the less common fractures such as fracture dislocations and head splitting fractures.There is insufficient evidence from RCTs to inform the choices between different non-surgical, surgical, or rehabilitation interventions for these fractures.

Twitter Demographics

The data shown below were collected from the profiles of 96 tweeters who shared this research output. Click here to find out more about how the information was compiled.

Mendeley readers

The data shown below were compiled from readership statistics for 565 Mendeley readers of this research output. Click here to see the associated Mendeley record.

Geographical breakdown

Country Count As %
Portugal 1 <1%
Colombia 1 <1%
Italy 1 <1%
Austria 1 <1%
United Kingdom 1 <1%
Japan 1 <1%
United States 1 <1%
Unknown 558 99%

Demographic breakdown

Readers by professional status Count As %
Student > Master 117 21%
Student > Bachelor 85 15%
Student > Doctoral Student 53 9%
Researcher 47 8%
Student > Ph. D. Student 44 8%
Other 118 21%
Unknown 101 18%
Readers by discipline Count As %
Medicine and Dentistry 242 43%
Nursing and Health Professions 92 16%
Psychology 16 3%
Social Sciences 14 2%
Sports and Recreations 11 2%
Other 55 10%
Unknown 135 24%

Attention Score in Context

This research output has an Altmetric Attention Score of 73. This is our high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received. This Attention Score, as well as the ranking and number of research outputs shown below, was calculated when the research output was last mentioned on 28 May 2020.
All research outputs
#360,394
of 17,831,129 outputs
Outputs from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#777
of 11,772 outputs
Outputs of similar age
#7,988
of 291,710 outputs
Outputs of similar age from Cochrane database of systematic reviews
#24
of 243 outputs
Altmetric has tracked 17,831,129 research outputs across all sources so far. Compared to these this one has done particularly well and is in the 97th percentile: it's in the top 5% of all research outputs ever tracked by Altmetric.
So far Altmetric has tracked 11,772 research outputs from this source. They typically receive a lot more attention than average, with a mean Attention Score of 25.3. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 93% of its peers.
Older research outputs will score higher simply because they've had more time to accumulate mentions. To account for age we can compare this Altmetric Attention Score to the 291,710 tracked outputs that were published within six weeks on either side of this one in any source. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 97% of its contemporaries.
We're also able to compare this research output to 243 others from the same source and published within six weeks on either side of this one. This one has done particularly well, scoring higher than 90% of its contemporaries.